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RD50 - Literature Data Base


 Table of contents

 1     Publications of General Interest

1.1     Common Papers and General Reviews

1.2     Thesis

2     Radiation environment in LHC and NIEL

3     Defect Characterisation

3.1     TSC, DLTS techniques

3.2     Reviews on Defects in Semiconductors

3.3     Old Literature on point defects in irradiated Si

3.4     Recent literature on point defects in Si

3.5     Defect Clusters

3.6     Defects in SiC

3.7     Defects in GaN

3.8     Defects in GaAs

4     Defect Engineering

4.1     DOFZ Si

4.2     Cz Si

4.3     Thin Epitaxial Si

4.4     Oxygen dimers in silicon

4.5     Pre-irradiation

5     Pad Detector Characterization

5.1     Annealing Effects

5.2     Trapping times

5.3     Charge collection efficiency

5.4     Simulation

5.5     Low Temperature Operation

5.6     Forward Bias Operation

5.7     Carrier Injection

5.8     CV and Hall Effect analysis

6     New Structures

6.1     3D detector

6.2     Thin detectors

6.3     Semi-3D detectors

7     New Materials

7.1     Silicon Carbide

7.2     GaN

7.3     GaAs

7.4     Other Materials

8     Full Detector Systems

8.1    Microstrip detectors

8.2    Pixel detectors


1       Publications of General Interest

1.1       Common Papers & General Reviews

RD50 Status Report 2002/2003 - Radiation hard semiconductor devices for very high luminosity collidersCERN-LHCC-2003-058 and LHCC-RD-002, Nov. 2003.

Michael Moll on behalf of the RD50 Collaboration, Development of radiation hard sensors for very high luminosity colliders––CERN-RD50 project, NIM A, Sept. 2003, 97-105.

G. Lindström et al., Developments for radiation hard silicon detectors by defect engineering––results by the CERN RD48 (ROSE) Collaboration, NIM A  465, Issue 1, 1 June 2001, Pages 60-69

G. Lindström et al., Radiation hard silicon detectors––developments by the RD48 (ROSE) collaboration, NIM A 466, Issue 2, 1 July 2001, 308-326

G.Lindström, M.Moll, E.Fretwurst, Radiation hardness of silicon detectors – a challenge from high energy physics, NIM A 426, pp. 1-15, 1999.

H. Dijkstra and J. Libby, Overview of silicon detectors, NIM A 494, Issues 1-3, 21 November 2002, Pages 86-93

1.2       Thesis

M.Moll, Radiation Damage in Silicon Particle Detectors–microscopic defects and macroscopic properties,  PhD Thesis, 1999, Hamburg, Germany.

A. Schramm, diploma thesis, title University of Hamburg, November 2003

F. Hönniger, diploma thesis, title University of Hamburg, October 2003

2         Radiation environment in LHC and NIEL

The LHC study group, The Large Hadron Collider, conceptual design,  CERN/AC/95-05 (LHC), 20 October 1995.

The Compact Muon Solenoid, Technical Proposal, CERN/LHCC 94-38 LHCC/P1, 1994.

ATLAS Technical Proposal, CERN/LHCC/94-43, LHCC/P2,1994.

Pertti A.Aarnio, Mika Huhtinen, Hadron fluxes in inner parts of LHC detectors, Nucl. Instr. Meth., vol. A336, pp. 98-105, 1993.

J.R.Bilinski, E.H.Brooks, U.Cocca, R.J.Maier, Proton-neutron damage correlation in semiconductors, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 10,  pp.20-26, 1963.

T. Angelescu and A. Vasilescu, Comparative radiation hardness results obtained from various neutron sources and the NIEL problem, Nucl. Instr. Meth., vol. A374, pp. 85-90, 1996.

M. Huhtinen, Simulation of non-ionising energy loss and defect formation in silicon NIM A  491, Issues 1-2, 21 September 2002, Pages 194-215

A. Chilingarov, D. Lipka, J. S. Meyer and T. Sloan Displacement energy for various ions in particle detector materials, NIM A 449, 1-2, July 2000, 277-287

3         Defect Characterisation

3.1       TSC, DLTS techniques


M. G. Buehler, Impurity centers in pn junctions determined from shifts in the thermally stimulated current and capacitance response with heating rate, Solid-State Electronics, vol. 15, pp. 69-79, 1972.

D.V. Lang, Deep-level transient spectroscopy: a new method to characterize traps in semiconductors, J. Appl. Phys., vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 3023-3032, 1974.

P.Blood and J.W.Orton, The electrical characterization of semiconductor: majority carriers and electron states, N.H.March, Ed. Academic Press, London, 1992.

I. Pintilie, L. Pintilie, D. Petre, C. Tivarus, and T. Botila, Theoretical background of the optical charging spectroscopy method used for investigation of trapping levels, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1685 (1998)

I. Pintilie, L. Pintilie, M. Moll, E. Fretwurst, and G. Lindstroem Thermally stimulated current method applied on diodes with high concentration od deep trapping levels  Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 550 (2001)

3.2      Reviews on Defects in Semiconductors

George D. Watkins, Intrinsic defects in silicon, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 3, Issue 4, 1 August 2000, Pages 227-235

L. C. Kimerling, New developments in defect studies in semiconductors, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 23, 6, pp. 1497-1505, 1976.


3.3      Old Literature on defects in irradiated Si 


G.K.Wertheim, Energy levels in electron-bombarded Silicon, Phys. Rev., vol.105, no. 6, pp. 1730-1735, 1957.

J.H.Crawford Jr., J.W.Cleland, Nature of Bombardment damage and energy levels in semiconductors, J. App. Phys., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1204-1213, 1959.

G.D.Watkins and J.W.Corbett, Defects in irradiated silicon: electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance of the Si-E center, Phys. Rev. A, vol. 134, pp. 1359-1377, 1964.

G.D.Watkins and J.W.Corbett, Defects in Irradiated Silicon: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of the Divacancy, Phys. Rev., vol. 138, no. 2A,  pp. 543-555, 1965.

L.C.Kimerling, H.N.DeAngelis, C.P.Carnes, Annealing of electron-irradiated n-type silicon. I Donor concentration dependence, Phys. Rev. B, Vol.3, n.2, pp. 427-433, 1971.

C.S.Chen, J.C.Corelli, Infrared Spectroscopy of Divacancy-Associated Radiation-Induced Absorption Bands in Silicon, Phys. Rev. B, vol.5, no. 4, pp. 1505-1517, 1972.

Y.H.Lee, L.J.Cheng, J.D.Gerson, P.M.Mooney, J.W.Corbett,Carbon interstitial in electron-irradiated silicon, Solid State Commun., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 109-111, 1977.

P.M.Mooney, L.J.Cheng, M.Suli, J.D.Gerson, J.W.Corbett, Defect energy levels in boron-doped silicon irradiated with 1-MeV electrons, Phys. Rev. B, vol. 15, pp. 3836-3843, 1977.

H.Lefèvre, Trap-Centers of Self-Interstitials in Silicon, Appl. Phys., vol. 22, pp.15-22, 1980.

H.M.Heijne, J.C.Muller, P.Siffert, TSC defect level in silicon produced by irradiation with muons of GeV-energy, Radiation Effects, vol. 29, pp. 25-26, 1976.

E.Borchi, C.Bertrand, C.Leroy, M.Bruzzi, C.Furetta, R.Paludetto, P.G.Rancoita, L.Vismara, P.Giubellino, Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy measurements of majority carrier traps in neutron-irradiated n-type silicon detectors, Nucl. Instr. Meth., vol. A279, pp. 277-280, 1989.

J.M.Trombetta and G.D.Watkins, Identification of an interstitial carbon - interstitial oxygen complex in silicon, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 51, pp.1103-1105, 1987.

L.W.Song, G.D.Watkins, EPR identification of the single-acceptor state of interstitial carbon in silicon, Phys. Rev. B, vol. 42, no.9, pp. 5759-5764, 1990.

W.M.Chen, B.Monemar, E.Janzen, J.L.Lindstroem, Direct observation of intercenter charge transfer in dominant nonradiative recombination channels in silicon, Phys. Rev. Lett, vol. 67, pp. 1914-1917, 1991.

3.4      Recent literature on point defects in Si

I. Pintilie, E. Fretwurst, G. Lindström, and J. Stahl, Second order generation of point defects in gamma irradiated float zone silicon, an explanation for "type inversion", Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2169 (2003).

I. Pintilie, E. Fretwurst, G. Lindström, and J. Stahl, Close to midgap trapping level in 60Co gamma irradiated silicon detectors Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 165 (2002).

3.5      Defect Clusters

W.Schröter, J.Kronewitz, U.Gnauert, F.Riedel, M.Seibt, Structural and electrical properties of NiSi2 particles in silicon, Phys.Rev. B, vol.52, no. 19, pp.1372-1392, 1995.

H.Hedemann and W.Schröter, Deep-level transient-spectroscopy for localized states at extended defects in semiconductors, J. Phys. III (France), vol. 7,  pp. 1389-1398, 1997.

W.Schröter, I.Queisser, J.Kronewitz, Capacitance transient spectroscopy of dislocations in semiconductors, Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium. IOP, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 104, pp. 75-84, 1989.

3.6      Defects in SiC

H. Kortegaard Nielsen, D. M. Martin, P. Lévêque, A. Hallén and B. G. Svensson, Annealing study of a bistable defect in proton-implanted n-type 4H-SiC, Physica B: Condensed Matter, In Press.

J. Wong-Leung, M. K. Linnarsson and B. G. Svensson, A comparison of extended defect formation induced by ion implantation in (0 0 0 1) and 4H-SiC, Physica B: Condensed Matter, In Press.

I. Pintilie, L. Pintilie, K. Irmscher, and B. Thomas, Formation of the Z1,2 deep-level defects in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers: Evidence for nitrogen participation, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4841 (2002)

A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Polenta, F. Nava, C. Canali and C. Lanzieri, Deep levels in silicon carbide Schottky diodes, Applied Surface Science, Volume 187, 3-4, 2002, 248-252

M. S. Janson, A. Hallén, M. K. Linnarsson and B. G. Svensson, Hydrogen–boron complex formation and dissociation in 4H–silicon carbide, Applied Surface Science, 184, 1-4,2001,257-262

D. Åberg, A. Hallén and B. G. Svensson, Low-dose ion implanted epitaxial 4H–SiC investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy, Physica B: Condensed Matter, 273-274, 1999,  672-676

J. P. Doyle, M. O. Aboelfotoh, B. G. Svensson, A. Schöner and N. Nordell, Characterization of electrically active deep level defects in 4H and 6H SiC, Diamond and Related Materials, Volume 6, Issue 10, August 1997, Pages 1388-1391

3.7      Defects in GaN

George D. Watkins, K. H. Chow, P. Johannesen, L. S. Vlasenko, C. Bozdog, A. J. Zakrzewski, M. Mizuta, H. Sunakawa, N. Kuroda and Akira Usui, Intrinsic defects in GaN: what we are learning from magnetic resonance studies, Physica B: Condensed Matter, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 24 October 2003

G. D. Watkins, L. S. Vlasenko and C. Bozdog, A radiation-produced defect in GaN displaying hyperfine structure with three Ga atoms, Physica B: Condensed Matter, Volumes 308-310, December 2001, Pages 62-65

3.8      Defects in GaAs



4         Defect Engineering

J. Stahl, E. Fretwurst, G. Lindstroem and I. Pintilie, Radiation hardness of silicon––a challenge for defect engineering, Physica B: Condensed Matter, In Press

4.1      DOFZ Si

 Z. Li, E. Verbitskaya, V. Eremin, B. Dezillie, W. Chen and M. Bruzzi, Radiation hard detectors from silicon enriched with both oxygen and thermal donors: improvements in donor removal and long-term stability with regard to neutron irradiation, NIM A476, Issue 3, 11 January 2002, Pages 628-638

4.2      Cz

 J. Härkönen, E. Tuovinen, P. Luukka, E. Tuominen, K. Lassila-Perini, P. Mehtälä, S. Nummela, J. Nysten, A. Zibellini, Z. Li et al., Radiation hardness of Czochralski silicon, Float Zone silicon and oxygenated Float Zone silicon studied by low energy protons, NIM A 518, Issues 1-2, 1 February 2004, Pages 346-348


4.3      Thin Epitaxial Si

G. Kramberger, D. Contarato, E. Fretwurst, F. Hönniger, G. Lindström, I. Pintilie, R. Röder, A. Schramm and J. Stahl, Superior radiation tolerance of thin epitaxial silicon detectors, NIM A 515, Issue 3, 11 December 2003, Pages 665-670.

4.4      Oxygen dimers in silicon

J.L. Lindström et al., Physica B 308-310 (2001) 284

Y.L. Lee et al., Phys. Rev. B 65 (2002) 085205

J.L. Lindström,, Materials Science Forum Vols 258-263(1997) pp. 367-372

C. Da Via, S.J. Watts, NIM B 186(2002) 111-115

S.J. Watts, C. Da Via, A. Karpenko, NIM A 485(2002) 153-158

4.5 Pre-irradiation

A.P Litovchenko, P.G. Litovchenko, V.I. Varnina, A.A. Groza, G.G. Shmatko, L.S. Marchenko, A.K. Semenuk. The radiation defects Influence on oxygen thermally treated silicon// Ukrainian Journal of Physics, 2001, vol. 46.

A.P. Litovchenko, A.A. Groza, E.F. Venger, V.I. Varnina, R.Yu. Holiney, P.G. Litovchenko, L.A. Matveeva, M.I. Starchik, V.I. Sugakov, G.G. Shmatko. Influence of neutron irradiation on electrooptical and structural properties of silicon//Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics and Optoelectronics, 2001. V. 4, N 3. P. 152-155.

O.P. Litovchenko, W. Wahl, A.A. Groza, A.P. Dolgolenko, A.Ya. Karpenko, V.I. Khivrych, V.F. Lastovetsky, V.I. Sugakov, P.G. Litovchenko, V.K. Dubovy. Influence of preliminary irradiation on radiation hardness of silicon and indium antimonide// Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics. 2001. V. 4, N 3. P. 152-155.

P.G. Litovchenko, A.A. Groza, A.Ya. Karpenko, V.I. Khivrich, A.P. Dolgolenko, V.F. Lastovetsky, L.I. Barabash, D. Bisello, A. Candelori, A.P. Litovchenko, A. Kaminsky, W. Wahl, J. Wyss. Radiation hardening of silicon for detectors by preliminary irradiation, Proceedings of the 9th “European Symposium on Semiconductor Detectors”-New Developments on Radiation Detectors, Schloss Elmau, June 23 - 27, 2002, Germany

P.G. Litovchenko, D. Bisello, A. Candelori, A.P. Litovchenko, A.A. Groza, A.P. Dolgolenko, V.I. Khivrich, L.I. Barabash, V.F. Lastovetsky, L.A. Polivtsev, W. Wahl, J. Wyss. Radiation hardening of silicon for detectors by preliminary irradiation// Solid State Phenomena, vol.95- 96, 2004, pp. 399-404

5         Pad Detector Characterization

E. Fretwurst, G. Lindström, I Pintilie, J. Stahl, Radiation Damage in Silicon Detectors Caused by Hadronic and Electromagnetic Irradiation Desy Report Desy 02-199, Physics/0211118, December 2002,

5.1      Annealing Effects

Pintilie, I.; Petris, M.; Tivarus, C.; Moll, M.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Some annealing effects in proton irradiated silicon detectors  Semiconductor Conference, 2000. CAS 2000 Proceedings. International , Volume: 1 , 10-14 Oct. 2000 Page(s): 259 -262 vol.1

Li, Z.; Chen, W.; Dou, L.; Eremin, V.; Kraner, H.W.; Li, C.J.; Lindstroem, G.; Spiriti, E.; Study of the long term stability of the effective concentration of ionized space charges (Neff) of neutron irradiated silicon detectors fabricated by various thermal oxidation processes  Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 42 Issue: 4, Aug 1995 Page(s): 219 -223

5.2      Trapping times

G. Kramberger, V. Cindro, I. Mandic, M. Mikuz and M. Zavrtanik, Effective trapping time of electrons and holes in different silicon materials irradiated with neutrons, protons and pions, NIM A 481, Issues 1-3, 2002, 297-305.

G. Kramberger, V. Cindro, I. Mandic, M. Mikuz and M. Zavrtanik, Determination of effective trapping times for electrons and holes in irradiated silicon, NIM A476, 3, 2002, 645-651

T. J. Brodbeck, A. Chilingarov, T. Sloan, E. Fretwurst, M. Kuhnke and G. Lindstroem,
A new method of carrier trapping time measurement, NIM A 455, 3, December 2000, 645-655

5.3      Charge collection efficiency

G. Casse, P. P. Allport, S. F. Biagi, T. J. V. Bowcock, A. Greenall and P. R. Turner, Charge collection and charge sharing in heavily irradiated n-side read-out silicon microstrip detectors, NIM A 511, Issues 1-2, 21 September 2003, Pages 112-117

Sean M. Hearne, David N. Jamieson, Changyi Yang and Andrew S. Dzurak,TCAD modeling of ion beam induced charge collection in silicon Schottky barrier devices, NIM B 210, September 2003, Pages 181-185

P. P. Allport, T. J. V. Bowcock, G. Casse, A. Greenall, J. N. Jackson, S. Martí i García and P. R. Turner, Charge collection efficiency studies with irradiated silicon detectors, NIM A 501, Issue 1, 21 March 2003, Pages 146-152

I. Stavitski, R. Rando, D. Bisello, N. Bacchetta, A. Candelori, A. Kaminski and J. Wyss, Charge collection efficiency of standard and oxygenated silicon microstrip detectors, NIM A 485, Issues 1-2, 1 June 2002, Pages 105-108

S. Martí i García, P. P. Allport, G. Casse and A. Greenall, A model of charge collection for irradiated p+n detectors, NIM A 473, Issues 1-2, 1 November 2001, Pages 128-135

5.4      Simulation

I. Lazanu, S. Lazanu, Lindhard Factors and Concentrations of Primary Defects in Semiconductor Materials for uses in HEP UBPub EPPG/Phys. 52 December 2002.

I. Lazanu, S. Lazanu,The Modelling of Long-Term Damage after Irradiation in Silicon for Uses at the LHC Accelerator and in Space Mission, and its Influence on Detector Performances UBPub EPPG/Phys. 53 January 2003.

5.5      Low temperature Operation

T. O. Niinikoski, M. Abreu, P. Anbinderis, T. Anbinderis, N. D'Ambrosio, W. de Boer, E. Borchi, K. Borer, M. Bruzzi, S. Buontempo et al., Low-temperature tracking detectors, NIM A, in press.

5.6      Forward Bias Operation

A. Chilingarov and T. Sloan, Operation of heavily irradiated silicon detectors under forward bias, NIM A 399, Issue 1, 1 November 1997, Pages 35-37.

5.7      Carrier Injection

V. Cindro, I. Mandic, G. Kramberger, M. Mikuz and M. Zavrtanik, Recovery of charge collection in heavily irradiated silicon diodes with continuous hole injection, NIM A: in press.

5.8      C-V and Hall effect analysis

E.Borchi, M.Bruzzi, S.Pirollo, S.Sciortino, Temperature and frequency dependence of the capacitance of heavily irradiated silicon diodes, Solid-State Electronics, Vol.42, no.11, pp. 2093-2096, 1998.

E.Borchi, M.Bruzzi, B.Dezillie, S.Lazanu, Z.Li, S.Pirollo, Hall effect analysis in irradiated silicon samples with different resistivities, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. 46, no.4, pp. 834-838, 1999.

D. Campbell, A. Chilingarov and T. Sloan, Frequency and temperature dependence of the depletion voltage from CV measurements for irradiated Si detectors, NIM A 492, Issue 3, 21 Oct. 2002, 402-410

T. J. Brodbeck, A. Chilingarov, T. Sloan, E. Fretwurst, M. Kuhnke and G. Lindstroem
Carrier mobilities in irradiated silicon, NIM A477, 1-3, January 2002,287-292

D. Campbell, A. Chilingarov and T. Sloan, Frequency-temperature scaling of the CV characteristics for irradiated Si detectors, NIM A466, 3, July 2001, 456-463.

V.Eremin, Z.Li, Determination of the Fermi level position for neutron irradiated high resistivity silicon detectors and materials using the transient charge technique (TChT), IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1907-1912, 1994.

V.N.Brudnyi, S.N.Grinayaev, V.E.Stepanov, Local  neutrality conception: Fermi level pinning in defective semiconductors, Physica B, pp. 429-435, 1995.

6         New Structures

6.1      3D detectors

Parker, S.I.; Kenney, C.J.; Performance of 3-D architecture silicon sensors after intense proton irradiation Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 48 Issue: 5 , Oct. 2001 Page(s): 1629 -1638

Kenney, C.J.; Parker, S.I.; Krieger, B.; Ludewigt, B.; Dubbs, T.P.; Sadrozinski, H.; Observation of beta and X rays with 3-D-architecture silicon microstrip sensors  Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 48 Issue: 2 , April 2001 Page(s): 189 -193

Kenney, C.J.; Parker, S.; Walckiers, E.; Results from 3-D silicon sensors with wall electrodes: near-cell-edge sensitivity measurements as a preview of active-edge sensors Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on, Volume: 48 Issue: 6 , Dec. 2001 Page(s): 2405 -2410

Kenney, C.; Parker, S.; Krieger, B.; Ludewigt, B.; 3D architecture silicon sensors: test results: future  plans  Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2000 IEEE , Volume: 1 , 15-20 Oct. 2000  Page(s): 3/64 vol.1

Kenney, C.; Parker, S.; Segal, J.; Storment, C.; Silicon detectors with 3-D electrode arrays: fabrication and initial test results Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 46 Issue: 4 , Aug 1999 Page(s): 1224 -1236

Segal, J.D.; Kenney, C.J.; Aw, C.H.; Parker, S.I.; Vilkelis, G.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Patt, B.E.; Plummer, J.;  A vertical high voltage termination structure for high-resistivity silicon detectors  Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 45 Issue: 3 , June 1998 Page(s): 364 -369

Patrick Roy, G. Pellegrini, A. Al-Ajili, R. Bates, L. Haddad, J. Melone, V. O'Shea, K. M. Smith, V. Wright and M. Rahman, Study of irradiated 3D detectors, NIM A509, Issues 1-3, 21 August 2003, Pages 132-137

6.2      Thin detectors   

 P. Riedler, J. Rochet, A. Rudge, M. Doser and R. Landua, Performance of ultra-thin silicon detectors in a 5 MeV antiproton beam,  NIM A 478, Issues 1-2, 1 February 2002, Pages 316-320

6.3      Semi-3D detectors

 Z. Li, Novel silicon stripixel detector: concept, simulation, design, and fabrication*1, NIM A518, Issue 3, 11 February 2004, Pages 738-753

7         New Materials

7.1      Silicon Carbide

F. Nava, E. Vittone, P. Vanni, P. G. Fuochi and C. Lanzieri Radiation tolerance of epitaxial silicon carbide detectors for electrons and -rays, NIM A 514,1-3,2003, 126-134

F. Nava, G. Wagner, C. Lanzieri, P. Vanni and E. Vittone, Investigation of Ni/4H-SiC diodes as radiation detectors with low doped n-type 4H-SiC epilayers, NIM A 510,  3, 2003, 273-280

F. Nava, E. Vittone, P. Vanni, G. Verzellesi, P. G. Fuochi, C. Lanzieri and M. Glaser, Radiation tolerance of epitaxial silicon carbide detectors for electrons, protons and gamma-rays, NIM A 505, 3, 2003,  645-655

M. Bruzzi, S. Lagomarsino, F. Nava and S. Sciortino Characterisation of epitaxial SiC Schottky barriers as particle detectors, Diamond and Related Materials, Volume 12, Issues 3-7, March-July 2003, Pages 1205-1208

G. Verzellesi, P. Vanni, F. Nava and C. Canali, Investigation on the charge collection properties of a 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector, NIM A 476, 3, 2002, 717-721

W. Cunningham, J. Melone, M. Horn, V. Kazukauskas, P. Roy, F. Doherty, M. Glaser, J. Vaitkus, M. Rahman and In the framework of the CERN RD50 Collaboration Performance of irradiated bulk SiC detectors, NIM A 509, 1-3, 2003, 127-131

M. Rogalla, K. Runge and A. Söldner-Rembold, Particle detectors based on semi-insulating silicon carbide, Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements, 78, 1-3, 1999, 516-520

A.A. Lebedev, N.B. Strokan, A.M. Ivanov, D.V. Davydov, V.V. Kozlovski, Compensated 6H-SiC Epilayers as Nuclear Particle Detectors, Materials Science Forum, Vols.353-356 (2001) p. 763-766.

A.A. Lebedev, N.B. Strokan, A.M. Ivanov, D.V. Davydov, N.S.Savkina, E.V.Bogdanova, A.N.Kuznetsov, Amplification of the signal in trode structures of ion detectors based on 6H-SiC epitaxial films, Applied Physics Letters, V.79, N.26 (2001) p.4447-4449.

M. Ivanov, N. B. Strokan, D. V. Davidov, N. S. Savkina, A. A. Lebedev, Yu. T. Mironov, G. A. Ryabov, E. M. Ivanov, Radiation hardness of SiC based ion detectors for influence of the relative protons, Applied Surface Science, Vol. 184 (2001) p. 431-436

K. K. Lee, T. Ohshima, A. Saint, T. Kamiya, D. N. Jamieson and H. Itoh, A comparative study of the radiation hardness of silicon carbide using light ions, NIM B210, September 2003, Pages 489-494

7.2      GaN

J. Vaitkus, E. Gaubas, T. Shirahama, S. Sakai, T. Wang, K. M. Smith and W. Cunningham, Space charge effects, carrier capture transient behaviour and particle detection in semi-insulating GaN, NIM A 514, Issues 1-3, 21 November 2003, Pages 141-145

J. Vaitkus, W. Cunningham, E. Gaubas, M. Rahman, S. Sakai, K. M. Smith and T. Wang, Semi-insulating GaN and its evaluation for  particle detection, NIM A 509, 1-3, 2003, 60-64

7.3      GaAs

A. Chilingarov, J. S. Meyer and T. Sloan, Radiation damage due to NIEL in GaAs particle detectors, NIM A 395, Issue 1,August 1997,35-44.

U. Biggeri, C. Canali, C. Lanzieri, C. Leroy, F. Nava and P. Vanni, Noise behavior of semi-insulating GaAs particle detectors before and after proton irradiation, Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements, Volume 78, Issues 1-3, August 1999, Pages 527-532

A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Polenta, C. Canali and F. Nava,Electric field and space-charge distribution in SI GaAs: effect of high-energy proton irradiation, NIM A 426, 1, 1999, 192-196

A. Cola, F. Quaranta, L. Vasanelli, C. Canali, A. Cavallini, F. Nava and M. E. Fantacci, A study of the trap influence on the performance of semi-insulating GaAs detectors, NIM A 395, Issue 3, 1997, 349-354.

A. Cola, L. Vasanelli, L. Reggiani, A. Cavallini and F. Nava, Microscopic modelling of semi-insulating GaAs detectors, NIM A 395, 1, 1997,  98-100

F. Nava, P. Vanni, A. Cavallini, A. Castaldini, C. Canali, A. Alberigi Quaranta and C. Lanzieri, Proton induced bulk damage effects in gallium arsenide detectors, Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements, 61, 3, 1998, 432-437.

C. Chiossi, F. Nava, C. Canali, S. D'Auria, C. del Papa, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini and C. Lanzieri, Proton radiation effects on SI LEC GaAs detector performances NIM A388, Issue 3, 1997, 379-382.

7.4      Other Materials

Paul J. Sellin, Recent advances in compound semiconductor radiation detectors, NIM A 513, 1-2, 2003, 332-339.

8         Full Detector Systems

8.1      Microstrip detectors

G. Casse, P. P. Allport, S. Martí i Garcia, M. Lozano, P. R. Turner and Work done in the framework of CERN/RD50 Collaboration, First results on charge collection efficiency of heavily irradiated microstrip sensors fabricated on oxygenated p-type silicon, NIM A, in press.

P. P. Allport, G. Casse and A. Greenall, Radiation tolerance of oxygenated n-strip read-out detectors, NIM A 513, 1-2, 2003,  84-88

G. Casse, P. P. Allport, S. F. Biagi, T. J. V. Bowcock, A. Greenall and P. R. Turner, Charge collection and charge sharing in heavily irradiated n-side read-out silicon microstrip detectors, NIM A 511, Issues 1-2, 21 September 2003, Pages 112-117

8.2      Pixel detectors

G. Kramberger and D. Contarato, Simulation of signal in irradiated silicon pixel detectors, NIMA 511,  1-2, 2003,82-87

I. Gorelov, G. Gorfine, M. Hoeferkamp, V. Mata-Bruni, G. Santistevan, S. C. Seidel, A. Ciocio, K. Einsweiler, J. Emes, M. Gilchriese et al.Electrical characteristics of silicon pixel detectors, NIM A 489, 1-3, 2002, 202-217

F. Hügging, Design studies on sensors for the ATLAS Pixel Detector, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 477, Issues 1-3, 21 January 2002, Pages 143-149

  Comments: Mara Bruzzi    

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